Tuesday, 2 April 2013

Android Interview Questions Part1

What is Android?
Android is a stack of software for mobile devices which includes an Operating System, middleware and some key applications. The application executes within its own process and its own instance of Dalvik Virtual Machine. Many Virtual Machines run efficiently by a DVM device. DVM executes Java languages byte code which later transforms into .dex format files.
(It is an open-sourced operating system that is used primarily on mobile devices, such as cell phones and tablets. It is a Linux kernel-based system that’s been equipped with rich components that allows developers to create and run apps that can perform both basic and advanced functions.

What is an activity?
An Activity is an application component that provides a screen with which users can interact in order to do something, such as dial the phone, take a photo, send an email, or view a map. Each activity is given a window in which to draw its user interface. The window typically fills the screen, but may be smaller than the screen and float on top of other windows.

Describe the APK format(.apk)
apk stands for (Android Packaging Key or Application packaging). During the build process, your Android projects are compiled and packaged into an .apk file, the container for your application binary.
                                     It contains all of the information necessary to run your application on a device or emulator, such as compiled .dex files (.class files converted to Dalvik byte code), a binary version of the AndroidManifest.xml file, compiled resources (resources.arsc) and uncompiled resource files for your application.

What is Intent ?
Three of the core components of an application — activities, services, and broadcast receivers — are activated through messages, called intents. Intent messaging is a facility for late run-time binding between components in the same or different applications. The intent itself, an Intent object, is a passive data structure holding an abstract description of an operation to be performed — or, often in the case of broadcasts, a description of something that has happened and is being announced. There are separate mechanisms for 
delivering intents to each type of component.

What is an Implicit Intent?
In an implicit intent, the main power of the android design, we just declare an intent and leave it 
to the platform to find an activity that can respond to the intent. Here, we do not declare the target
 component and hence is typically used for activating components of other applications seamlessly

What is an Explicit Intent?
In an explicit intent, we actually specify the activity that is required to respond to the intent. In other words, 
we explicitly designate the target component. This is typically used for application internal messages.

What is a Content Provider?
Content Providers are the only way to share data across Android applications. They store and retrieve data thus making it accessible to all. Content Providers give a uniform interface to access the data. Android platform provides default implementations of content providers for data types like audio, video, images, contact information etc.

What is a Service?
A Service is an application component representing either an application's desire to perform a longer-running operation while not interacting with the user or to supply functionality for other applications to use. Services run without a dedicated GUI, but, like Activities and Broadcast Receivers, they still execute in the main thread of the application's process. A Service could be, facility for an application to expose some of its functionality to other applications.

What is the Open Handset Alliance?
The OHA is a consortium of 84 technology and mobile companies that have joined hands to accelerate innovation in mobile technology and at the same time offer the end users a better, cost-effective and richer mobile experience. Members of this include Google, HTC, Sony, Dell, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, Samsung, LG, T-Mobile, Nvidia. The OHA was started on 5 November 2007 by Google and 34 other companies. Android is the main software of the alliance.

What is ViewGroup?
A ViewGroup is a special view that can contain other views (called children.) The view group is the base class for layouts and views containers. This class also defines the class ViewGroup.LayoutParams which serves as the base class for layouts parameters.